Análisis de los factores de resiliencia después de un desastre natural: caso de una muestra de chilenos que vivieron el terremoto y el tsunami de 2010

Oscar Labra, Augustin Ependa, Carol Castro

Resumen


Que se trate de una inundación, un huracán o un terremoto, las consecuencias de este tipo de desastres naturales son siempre devastadoras en la población y su impacto varía según factores individuales, contextuales y sociales. Los objetivos del presente artículo son describir el estado de salud general de los adultos afectados por el terremoto y tsunami de 2010 en la zona central de Chile e identificar los factores protectores que han facilitado una adaptación resiliente en las víctimas. Se emplea metodología de tipo mixta en 39 adultos víctimas del terremoto y tsunami. Los resultados revelan que factores de tipo individual —centrarse en sus preocupaciones, significación mágica atribuida al tiempo—, familiar —apoyo emocional, fortalecimiento entre la relación de pareja— y medioambiental — Iglesia y comunidad— fueron determinantes para que las victimas entrevistadas desarrollaran conductas resilientes. Lo anterior pese a presentar importantes problemas de salud a cuatro años de ocurrido el desastre. Estudios de género son necesarios para poder identificar las estrategias resilientes que ayuden a la familia a enfrentar de mejor forma estos desastres naturales.

Palabras clave: resiliencia, victimas, desastre natural, Chile.


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Anderson, M. L., A. Sortwell, W. Craig, S. Kelly y D. M. Ziedonis, 2016, “Symptom Patterns of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Deaf Trauma Survivors”, JADARA, 50(1), p. 3.

Arnberg, F. K., N. G. Eriksson, C. M. Hultman y T. Lundin, 2011, “Traumatic bereavement, acute dissociation, and posttraumatic stress: 14 years after the MS Estonia disaster”, Journal of traumatic stress, 24(2), pp. 183-190.

Aslam, N. y A. Kamal, 2016, “Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among General Population Affected by Floods in Pakistan”, Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 55(1), p. 29.

Auger, P. L., P. Verger, W. Dab, P. Guerrier, A. Lachance, P. Lajoie, L. A. Roy, 2003, “Sinistres naturels et accidents technologiques”, Environnement et santé publique: fondements et pratiques Volume Chapitre, 20.

Caldera, T., L. Palma, U. Penayo y G. Kullgren, 2001, “Psychological impact of the hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua in a one-year perspective”, Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 36(3), pp. 108-114.

Dulac, G., 2001, Aider les hommes—aussi, VLB.

duPont IV, W. e I. Noy, 2015, “What happened to Kobe? A reassessment of the impact of the 1995 earthquake in Japan”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 63(4), pp. 777-812.

Finnsdottir, T. y A. Elklit, 2002, “Posttraumatic sequelae in a community hit by an avalanche”, Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 15(6), pp. 479-485.

Goldberg, D. P., 1988, “User’s guide to the General Health Questionnaire”, Windsor.

Hayes, J. A. y J. R. Mahalik, 2000, “Gender role conflict and psychological distress in male counseling center clients”, Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 1(2), pp. 116- 125.

Hensley, L. y R. E. Varela, 2008, “PTSD symptoms and somatic complaints following Hurricane Katrina: The roles of trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity”, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), pp. 542-552.

Hlodversdottir, H., G. Petursdottir, H. K. Carlsen, T. Gislason, y A. Hauksdottir, 2016, “Long-term health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a prospective cohort study in 2010 and 2013”, BMJ open, 6(9), e011444.

Houle, J., 2005, La demande d’aide, le sotien social et le rôle masculin.

Hutton, D., 2004, “Psychosocial effects of a natural disaster: a post-flood assessment in the red river valley”, Environments, 32(2), p. 27.

Kar, N., P. K. Mohapatra, K. C. Nayak, P. Pattanaik, S. P. Swain y H. C. Kar, 2007, “Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents one year after a super- cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors”, BMC psychiatry, 7(1), p. 8.

Kim, S. C., R. Plumb, Q. N. Gredig, L. Rankin y B. Taylor, 2008, “Medium- term post- Katrina health sequelae among New Orleans residents: predictors of poor mental and physical health”, Journal of clinical nursing, 17(17), pp. 2335-2342.

Kun, P., S. Han, X. Chen y L. Yao, 2009, “Prevalence and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a cross-sectional study among survivors of the Wenchuan 2008 earthquake in China”, Depression and Anxiety, 26(12), pp. 1134-1140.

Labra, Ó. y D. Maltais, 2013, “Consecuencias de los desastres naturales en la vida de las personas: síntesis de la literatura y orientaciones para la intervención psicosocial”, Revista de Trabajo Social(85), pp. 53-67.

Labra, Ó., D. Maltais y G. Gingras-Lacroix, 2018, “Medium-term health of seniors following exposure to a natural disaster”, INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 55, 0046958018766667.

Labra, Ó., D. Maltais y G. Tremblay, 2017, “Chilean men exposed to the major earthquake in 2010: investigation of the impacts on their health”, American journal of men’s health, 11(2), pp. 392-403.

Labra, Ó., G. Tremblay, A. Ependa y G. Gingras-Lacroix, 2018, “Men’s Help-Seeking and Health in Natural Disaster Contexts”, Global Journal of Health Science, 10(1), p. 76.

Labra, Ó., G. Tremblay, A. Ependa y G. G. Lacroix, 2017, “Men’s Help-Seeking and Health in Natural Disaster Contexts”, Global Journal of Health Science, 10(1), p. 76.

Lacourse, M. T., 2005, Sociologie de la santé, Montréal, Chenelière/McGraw-Hill.

Lazaratou, H., T. Paparrigopoulos, G. Galanos, C. Psarros, D. Dikeos y C. Soldatos, 2008, “The psychological impact of a catastrophic earthquake: a retrospective study 50 years after the event”, The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 196(4), pp. 340-344.

Maltais, D., L. Lachance, A. Brassard y L. Picard, 2002, “Difficultés et effets à long terme d’une catastrophe en milieu rural : étude combinant les approches qualitative et quantitative”, Revue québécoise de psychologie, 23(3), pp. 197-217.

Maltais, D. y N. Simard, 2008, “Les effets à long terme de l’exposition à une catastrophe sur la santé biopsychosociale des individus”, Intervention sociale en cas de catastrophe, pp. 169-183.

Maltais, D. y N. Simard, 2008, “Les effets à long terme de l’exposition à une catastrophe sur la santé biopsychosociale des individus”, en D. Maltais y M. A. Rheault (eds.), Intervention sociale en cas de catastrophe, Québec, Presse de l’université du Québec, pp. 169-183.

Mills, M. A., D. Edmondson y C. L. Park, 2007, “Trauma and stress response among Hurricane Katrina evacuees”, American Journal of Public Health, 97(Supplement_1), S116-S123.

Morina, N., J. M. Wicherts, J. Lobbrecht y S. Priebe, 2014, “Remission from post- traumatic stress disorder in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of long term outcome studies”, Clinical Psychology Review, 34(3), pp. 249-255.

Norris, F. H., L. B. Slone, C. K. Baker y A. D. Murphy, 2006, “Early physical health consequences of disaster exposure and acute disaster-related PTSD”, Anxiety, stress, and coping, 19(2), pp. 95-110.

Oliffe, J. L., J. S. Ogrodniczuk, J. L. Bottorff, J. L. Johnson y K. Hoyak, 2012, “’You feel like you can’t live anymore’: Suicide from the perspectives of Canadian men who experience depression”, Social science & medicine, 74(4), pp. 506-514.

Platt, J. M., S. R. Lowe, S. Galea, F. H. Norris y K. C. Koenen, 2016, “A longitudinal study of the bidirectional relationship between social support and posttraumatic stress following a natural disaster”, Journal of traumatic stress, 29(3), pp. 205-213.

Richardson, G. E., 2002, “The metatheory of resilience and resiliency”, Journal of clinical psychology, 58(3), pp. 307-321.

Richardson, G. E., B. L. Neiger, S. Jensen y K. L. Kumpfer, 1990, “The resiliency model”, Health education, 21(6), pp. 33-39.

Risler, E., S. Kintzle y L. Nackerud, 2015, “Haiti and the earthquake: examining the experience of psychological stress and trauma”, Research on Social Work Practice, 25(2), pp. 251-256.

Roy, P. y G. Tremblay, 2015, “L’expérience du stress chez les agriculteurs: une analyse du genre masculin”, Nouvelles pratiques sociales, 27(2), pp. 236-252.

Roy, P., G. Tremblay, G. y S. Robertson, 2014, “Help- seeking among Male Farmers: Connecting Masculinities and Mental Health”, Sociologia Ruralis, 54(4), pp. 460-476.

Rubens, S. L., E. D. Felix y E. P. Hambrick, 2018, “A Meta- Analysis of the Impact of Natural Disasters on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Youth”, Journal of traumatic stress.

Rusa, T., I. Lee, Y. S. Ha, Y.A. Kim y Y. H. Kwon, 2004, “PTSD symptoms in elementary school children after Typhoon Rusa”, Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 34(4).

Şalcioğlu, M., E. Şalcioğlu y M. Livanou, 2007, “A randomized controlled study of single-session behavioural treatment of earthquake-related post-traumatic stress disorder using an earthquake simulator”, Psychological medicine, 37(2), pp. 203- 213.

Suzuki, Y., A. Tsutsumi, M. Fukasawa, H. Honma, T. Someya y Y. Kim, 2011, “Prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal thoughts among community- dwelling elderly adults 3 years after the Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake”, Journal of epidemiology, 21(2), pp. 144-150.

Swerdel, J. N., T. M. Janevic, N. M. Cosgrove, J. B. Kostis y Group, MIDASS, 2014, “The effect of Hurricane Sandy on cardiovascular events in New Jersey”, Journal of the American Heart Association, 3(6), e001354.

Tremblay, G., 2015, “L’expérience du stress chez les agriculteurs : Une analyse du genre masculin”, Nouvelles pratiques sociales, 27(2), pp. 236-252.

Tremblay, G., M. A. Morin, V. Desbiens y P. Bouchard, 2007, Conflits de rôle de genre et dépression chez les hommes, Québec, CRI-VIFF.

Tremblay, G., J. Roy, D. Guilmette, J. Sirois-Marcil, L. Beaudet, D. Bizot y S. Dupéré, 2016, Perceptions des hommes québécois de leurs besoins psychosociaux et de santé ainsi que leur rapport aux services. Rapport final, Québec Masculinités et Société.

Tremblay, G., Y. Thibault, F. Fonséca y R. Lapointe-Goupil, 2004, La santé mentale et les hommes: état de situation et pistes d’intervention: Intervention.

Udomratn, P., 2008, “Mental health and the psychosocial consequences of natural disasters in Asia”, International review of psychiatry, 20(5), pp. 441-444.

Velden, P. G. van der, A. Wong, H. C. Boshuizen y L. Grievink, 2013, “Persistent mental health disturbances during the 10 years after a disaster: Four-wave longitudinal comparative study”, Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 67(2), pp. 110-118.

Wang, P. S., M. J. Gruber, R. E. Powers, M. Schoenbaum, A. H. Speier, K. B. Wells y R. C. Kessler, 2007, “Mental health service use among Hurricane Katrina survivors in the eight months after the disaster”, Psychiatric services, 58(11), pp. 1403-1411.

Wang, X., L. Gao, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Shen y N. Shinfuku, 2000, “Post- earthquake quality of life and psychological well-being: Longitudinal evaluation in a rural community sample in northern China”, Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 54(4), pp. 427-433.

Watzlawick, P., J. H. Beavin, D. D. Jackson y J. Morche, 1972, “Une logique de la communication”.

Weiss, D. S., 2007, “The impact of event scale: revised”, en J. P. Wilson y C. So- Kum Tang (eds.), Cross-cultural assessment of psychological trauma and PTSD, Springer, pp. 219-238.

Xu, B., 2016, “Disaster, trauma, and memory”, Routledge International Handbook of Memory Studies, p. 357.

Zaetta, C., P. Santonastaso yA. Favaro, 2011, “Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster”, European journal of psychotraumatology, 2(1), 8454.

Zakour, M. J. y E. B. Harrell, 2004, “Access to disaster services: Social work interventions for vulnerable populations”, Journal of Social Service Research, 30(2), pp. 27-54.


Contador de visualizaciones:

  • Resumen : 215 vistas.
  • PDF : 60 vistas.
  • Enlaces refback

    • No hay ningún enlace refback.